The “cord blood bank” or “umbilical cord blood bank” are – the private or public facilities which collect and store the umbilical cord blood for future use. The private facilities store cord blood with a link of the identity of the donor and can be retrieved in case of necessity. Cord blood contains hematopoietic stem cells, the progenitor cells which can form red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.
The cord blood could be needed someday by the donor and could also be used by relatives who will have enough matches to receive a transplant from the donor, generally a sibling. Cord blood cells are currently used in stem cell therapy to treat blood and immune system related genetic diseases, cancers and blood diseases.
Bone marrow transplant requires a complete match of six antigens in their HLA types (Human Leukocyte Antigen) also known as 6/6match. However, cord blood transplant requires a less stringent match of 4/6 to achieve the same level medical success. But in some cases, for example; childhood leukemia and cancer and also immune disorder in childhood can’t be treated by their own cord blood as the blood also contains the same defects in the stored stem cells. Sometimes the stored cord blood cells are not sufficient enough to treat or transplant an adult because of higher body mass.